Spread charts show the distribution of a data set. The bar equals the spread of data from the minimum value through the median and to the maximum value of the data set. The quartiles are sets of values that divide the data set into four equal groups, each representing a quarter of the population being sampled. The upper quartile represents the split of the highest 25% of data or the top performers, whereas the lower quartile represents the split of the lowest 25% of data or the bottom performers.
A normalized Herfindahl index is used here as a measure of the size of fuel-type consumption in relation to a country’s total energy industry. The score represents the sum of the squares of the total primary energy supply types of the different countries being analysed within the energy industry, where the energy shares are expressed as fractions. The result can range from 0 to 1.0; in this case, a low score indicates a large number of individual energy sources and greater diversity, and an increasing score reflects a decrease in diversity towards a single-sourced supply. The Herfindahl index is also used to measure the diversification of import trade partners in relation to the amount imported from individual partners.
The formula is as follows:
H = N ∑ si 2
where si is the fuel-mix share of the fuel i in the overall mix, and N is the number of fuels. Then, to normalize:
H = (H-1/N) / (1-1/N)
The normalized result can range from 0 to 1.0.
In the context of this report, the below designations only cover the countries available within the EAPI 2014 sample.
ASEAN – The Association of Southeast Asian Nations was established on 8 August 1967 in Bangkok, Thailand and includes: Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, Indonesia, Malaysia, Philippines, Thailand and Vietnam. Singapore is included in the High Income (non-OECD) grouping.
BRICS – This designation comprises five economies: Brazil, Russia, India, People’s Republic of China, and South Africa.
CIS – The Commonwealth of Independent States includes Armenia, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Georgia, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyz Republic, Republic of Moldova, Russian Federation, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Ukraine and Uzbekistan.
Developing Asia – Defined by the IMF as less developed than their neighbouring counterparts, the countries in this group include Brunei Darussalam, Cambodia, People’s Republic of China, India, Indonesia, Malaysia, Mongolia, Nepal, Philippines, Sri Lanka, Thailand and Vietnam.
EU28 – The designation for the European Union’s (EU) 28 member countries as of September 2013, it comprises: Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom.
EU15 – The designation for the 15 EU member countries prior to the accession of 10 additional countries on 1 May 2004, it comprised: Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Ireland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden and United Kingdom. This report excludes data for Luxembourg.
EU11 – This group of the EU’s Central and Eastern European member countries includes: Bulgaria, Croatia, Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Romania, Slovak Republic and Slovenia.
High Income (OECD members) – A World Bank classification covering: Australia, Austria, Belgium, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Ireland, Israel, Italy, Japan, Republic of Korea, Luxembourg, Netherlands, New Zealand, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Slovak Republic, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, United Kingdom and United States.
High Income (non-OECD members) – A World Bank classification covering: Bahrain, Brunei Darussalam, Croatia, Cyprus, Kuwait, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Singapore, Trinidad and Tobago, and United Arab Emirates.
Latin America and the Caribbean – This area includes: Argentina, Bolivia, Brazil, Chile, Colombia, Costa Rica, Dominican Republic, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Haiti, Honduras, Jamaica, Mexico, Nicaragua, Panama, Paraguay, Peru, Trinidad and Tobago, Uruguay and Venezuela.
MENA – The Middle East and North Africa is an economically diverse region including both the oil-rich economies of the Gulf and countries that are resource-scarce in relation to population. In the context of this report, the MENA designation only covers the countries of MENA within the EAPI 2014 sample: Algeria, Bahrain, Egypt, Iran, Iraq, Jordan, Kuwait, Lebanon, Libya, Morocco, Oman, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Syrian Arab Republic, Tunisia, United Arab Emirates and Yemen.
Sub-Saharan Africa – This region covers all of Africa except northern Africa, and includes: Benin, Botswana, Cameroon, Republic of the Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Eritrea, Ethiopia, Ghana, Kenya, Mozambique, Namibia, Nigeria, Senegal, South Africa, Sudan, Tanzania, Togo and Zambia.