The Global Competitiveness Report 2014–2015: Full Data Edition is published by the World Economic Forum within the framework of The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network.
Professor Klaus Schwab
Professor Xavier Sala-i-Martín
Chief Advisor of The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network
Espen Barth Eide
Managing Director and Member of the Managing Board
The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz, Head of the Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network and Lead Economist
Beñat Bilbao-Osorio, Associate Director, Senior Economist
Ciara Browne, Director
Roberto Crotti, Quantitative Economist
Attilio Di Battista, Junior Quantitative Economist
Gaëlle Dreyer, Research Associate
Caroline Galvan, Senior Manager, Economist
Thierry Geiger, Associate Director, Senior Economist
Tania Gutknecht, Community Manager
Cecilia Serin, Senior Associate
We thank Hope Steele for her superb editing work and Neil Weinberg for his excellent graphic design and layout. We are grateful to Mirza Taqi for his invaluable research assistance.
The terms country and nation as used in this report do not in all cases refer to a territorial entity that is a state as understood by international law and practice. The terms cover well-defined, geographically self-contained economic areas that may not be states but for which statistical data are maintained on a separate and independent basis.
About the Authors
Beñat Bilbao-Osorio is an Associate Director and Senior Economist with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. In this capacity, he carries out research on national competitiveness issues with a special focus on Latin America and Iberia. In addition, he analyses the role of innovation and information and communication technologies in fostering competitiveness, and is co- editor of The Global Information Technology Report. Prior to joining the Forum, Dr Bilbao-Osorio worked at the Directorate-General for Research & Innovation of the European Commission, where he was responsible for the economic analysis of European Innovation Policy; at the Directorates of Science, Technology and Industry, and Education of the Organisation for Economic Co- operation and Development (OECD) on innovation-related topics; and at the International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/ WTO) on international trade competitiveness analysis. His main research fields are innovation, skills, and economic development, where he has published extensively. Dr Bilbao-Osorio holds a degree in Economics from the Universidad Comercial de Deusto (Spain), a Master in European Studies from the Université Catholique de Louvain (Belgium), and a PhD in Economic Geography from the London School of Economic and Political Science (UK).
Ciara Browne is a Director with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network team, where her responsibilities include managing partnerships— including institutional and corporate partnerships—and outreach for both competitiveness and risks reports. Ms Browne also oversees the process of implementing the Executive Opinion Survey, which is conducted worldwide and completed by around 15,000 business executives. Ms Browne is involved in the production process of reports on the team and works closely with the Forum’s media team in conveying the findings of the various competitiveness reports to the media and the public. Before joining the Forum, she served for several years with the International Organization for Migration, where she worked for a mass claims processing program. She has a BA (Hons) degree from the University of Manchester (UK).
Gemma Corrigan is a Senior Associate with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. Her responsibilities include the development of a repository of competitiveness practices, and she contributes to the research and drafting of various reports, including The Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Risks report. Prior to joining the World Economic Forum, she worked in the Division of Country Programmes at the International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/ WTO), where she focused on export strategies and issues related to trade competitiveness. Her areas of expertise include new institutional economics, development policy, inequality, and inclusive growth. She holds a Bachelor’s degree in Economics and History from Barnard College/ Columbia University in New York and a Master in Political Economy from the London School of Economics (UK).
Roberto Crotti is an Economist with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. His responsibilities include the computation and management of a range of indexes as well as data analysis for various projects and studies. His main areas of expertise are quantitative research, forecasting, and development economics. Prior to joining the Forum, he worked as an Analyst in the private consulting and forecasting sector. Mr Crotti holds a five-year degree in Economics/Economic Policy from Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan, Italy, and an MA in Economics from Boston University.
Attilio Di Battista
Attilio Di Battista is a Junior Quantitative Economist with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. He works on the development and computation of a range of indexes and on the analysis of data for the elaboration of various reports. His areas of expertise include international trade and competitiveness, institutions and development, investment flows, and financial stability. Prior to joining the Forum, he worked at the International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/WTO) on export strategy, policy, and trade competitiveness analysis. He has a Bachelor’s degree in International and Diplomatic Sciences from Università degli Studi di Trieste in Gorizia and a Master in International Economics from the Graduate Institute of International and Development Studies in Geneva, where he conducted research on the attractiveness of Italian provinces for foreign direct investments, focusing on the role of institutions and economic geography.
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz is Director, Lead Economist, and Head of The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. She researches and writes on issues of national competitiveness and global risks and is lead author or editor of a number of regional and topical reports and papers, including The Global Competitiveness Report and the Global Risks report series. Before joining The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network, Dr Drzeniek Hanouz worked with the International Trade Centre (UNCTAD/WTO) in Geneva, where she was in charge of relations with Central and Eastern European countries. Dr Drzeniek Hanouz received a Diploma in Economics from the University of Münster and holds a PhD in International Economics from the University of Bochum, both in Germany.
Caroline Galvan is an Economist and Senior Manager with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. She researches and writes on national competitiveness issues in sub-Saharan Africa and Europe and manages The Africa Competitiveness Report and The Europe 2020 Competitiveness Report. She also works on the World Economic Forum’s Global Risks report. Prior to joining the Forum, she worked for an economic policy consultancy in the United Kingdom, where she analyzed economic and financial policies in Central and Eastern Europe and Central Asia. She also worked for the Directorate-General for Economic and Financial Affairs of the European Commission, where she assessed financial development in the 2004 accession Member States. She holds an undergraduate degree in Economics from the University of Groningen and an MSc in Economics and Finance from the University of Tilburg, both in the Netherlands.
Thierry Geiger is an Associate Director and Senior Economist with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. He leads the competitiveness practice on Asia. As head of quantitative research, he supervises the development and computation of a wide range of composite indicators. He is also responsible for the Network’s technical assistance and capacity-building activities. His areas of expertise are private-sector development, international trade, and data science. Mr Geiger is co-editor of The Global Enabling Trade Report and co-author of The Global Competitiveness Report and The Global Information Technology Report, and is the lead author of several regional and country studies. A Swiss national, Mr Geiger holds a BA in Economics from the University of Geneva, an MA in Economics from the University of British Columbia, and was a Fellow of the Forum’s Global Leadership Programme. Prior to joining the Forum, he worked for the World Trade Organization and Caterpillar Inc. He is co-founder of Procab Studio, a Geneva-based IT company.
Tania Gutknecht is Community Manager with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. Her responsibilities include managing the network of Partner Institutes worldwide and driving the Executive Opinion Survey process. She also is responsible for the production of The Global Competitiveness Report and related benchmarking studies. She collaborates closely with the Forum’s media and digital content teams in conveying the findings of the competitiveness reports to the public through press, web, and social media. Prior joining the Global Competitiveness Network team, Ms Gutknecht worked with the Centre for Business Engagement at the World Economic Forum, where she designed high-profile events and projects to address the challenges of inclusive social and economic growth; built relationships with C-suite executives of partner companies; and oversaw the operation-management responsibilities of a team of coordinators. Ms Gutknecht holds an MA in International Relations from the Graduate Institute of International Studies (Geneva) as well as an MSc in International Management from the University of Geneva.
Xavier Sala-i-Martín is a Professor in the Department of Economics at Columbia University. He was previously an Associate Professor at the Department of Economics at Yale University and a Visiting Professor at Universitat Pompeum Fabra. His research interests include economic growth, macroeconomics, public finance and social security, health and population economics, monetary economics, poverty, inequality, estimation of the world distribution of income, and measuring competitiveness. He is a consultant on growth and competitiveness for a number of countries, international institutions, and corporations. Professor Sala-i-Martín is a Research Associate at the National Bureau of Economic Research. He earned his MA and PhD, both in Economics, from Harvard University. He collaborates closely with the World Economic Forum in his capacity as Chief Advisor to The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network.
Cecilia Serin is a Senior Associate with The Global Competitiveness and Benchmarking Network at the World Economic Forum. Her responsibilities include supporting the team through the production of the various reports, and coordinating the Sustainable Competitiveness project. Prior to joining the Forum, she worked at the United Nations Environment Programme Finance Initiative (UNEP FI), where she was responsible for organizing the bi- annual Global Roundtable on Sustainable Finance. She also worked at the United Nations Economic Commission for Europe (UNECE) on various sustainability issues. Ms Serin holds a BSc in Business Administration from the International University of Monaco and an MSc in Development Management from the London School of Economics and Political Science (UK).