Performance overview: South Africa
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South Africa slightly improves both its score and ranking (47th, up two). It has been relatively less affected by commodity price falls than other economies in the region, and has registered marginal improvements in almost all aspects of competitiveness. Most significant areas of progress include enhanced competition, both locally (up 13 places) and internationally (up 16 places); better use of talent in terms of how pay reflects productivity (98th, up 29 places); and a small but important upgrade in the quality of education (up five places), with primary school enrollment also now passing 97 percent. However, a number of shortcomings may limit South African competitiveness going forward. Infrastructure development has stalled, both in transport and electricity, with power shortages experienced this year. Institutional quality has diminished, with increased political uncertainty, less transparency, some security concerns, and business leaders having less trust in politicians (down 11 places since last year). The slowdown of the Chinese economy and exchange rate volatility may dampen growth, now forecast at 0.1 percent for 2016. This makes it unlikely that the high unemployment rate will diminish soon, hampering the ability to leverage Africa’s demographic dividend.