Performance overview: India
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India climbs for the second year in a row, to 39th. Its 16-place improvement is the largest this year. India’s competitiveness has improved across the board, in particular in goods market efficiency, business sophistication, and innovation. Thanks to improved monetary and fiscal policies, as well as lower oil prices, the Indian economy has stabilized and now boasts the highest growth among G20 countries. Recent reform efforts have concentrated on improving public institutions (up 16), opening the economy to foreign investors and international trade (up four), and increasing transparency in the financial system (up 15). Still, a lot needs to be done. The labor market is segmented between workers protected by rigid regulations and centralized wage determination (112th), especially in the manufacturing sector, and millions of unprotected and informal workers. The efficiency of the domestic market (81st) is hindered by fiscal regulations that allow federal states to levy different levels of value-added taxes; large, publicly owned enterprises further reduce the overall efficiency of the economy, especially in the utilities sector and the financial market, where there is growing concern about the incidence of non-performing loans. Finally, lack of infrastructure (68th) and ICT use (120th) remain bottlenecks. Improvement has been slow in recent years and further investment will be necessary, especially to connect rural areas and make sure they can equally benefit from and contribute to the country’s development.