About the authors
El-hadj M. Bah
El-hadj M. Bah is a Principal Research Economist in the Macroeconomics Policy, Forecasting and Research Department at the African Development Bank. His two main functions are conducting research on development issues and evaluating the development outcomes of private-sector operations. Before joining the Bank, he was Lecturer of Economics at the University of Auckland. He received his BSc in Industrial Engineering with a specialization in Project Management from the Mohammadia School of Engineers (Rabat, Morocco). He obtained an MSE in Industrial Engineering and a PhD in Economics from Arizona State University. His research interests are in the areas of macroeconomics, economic development, labor economics, and international economics. Dr Bah has published numerous journal articles and made several paper presentations. His research has been published in journals such as the Journal of Development Economics, Macroeconomic Dynamics, the Journal of Comparative Economics, the B.E. Journal of Macroeconomics, the Journal of Comparative Economics, Comparative Economic Studies, and Emerging Markets Finance and Trade.
Roberto Crotti is an Economist with the Global Competitiveness and Risk Team at the World Economic Forum. His responsibilities include competitiveness research, policy briefs, and management of country benchmarking tools. He is responsible for the competitiveness assessment of Africa and CIS countries, as well as industry analysis of the travel & tourism sector. His main areas of expertise are applied quantitative methods for policy evaluation, economic growth, and development economics. Prior to joining the Forum, he worked in the private consulting sector. Mr Crotti holds a five-year degree in Economics/Economic Policy from Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore in Milan, Italy, and an MA degree in Economics from Boston University and he is currently pursuing his doctorate in Development Economics at the Graduate Institute of International Studies (Geneva).
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz
Margareta Drzeniek Hanouz is Head of the Global Competitiveness and Risks Team and Lead Economist at the World Economic Forum, where she leads the work related to Competitiveness and Global Risks. In this capacity, she is lead author of The Global Competitiveness Report and The Global Risks Report, two flagship publications of the World Economic Forum. Previously she oversaw the economic modeling for some of the Forum’s scenario projects and was charged with developing the economics section of the program for the World Economic Forum’s Annual Meeting in Davos. Before joining the Forum, Dr Drzeniek Hanouz worked for several years with the International Trade Centre in Geneva, where she was in charge of relations with Central and Eastern European countries. Her areas of expertise include national competitiveness, private-sector development, international trade, economics of the MENA and CIS regions, and risks and resilience. Dr Drzeniek Hanouz received a Diploma in Economics from the University of Münster and holds a PhD in International Economics from the University of Bochum, both in Germany.
Barak Hoffman is a Public Sector Specialist at the World Bank. His work focuses on the political economy of development in Africa. Prior to joining the World Bank, he was the Director of the Center for Democracy and Civil Society at Georgetown University. He also has worked as an Economist at the United States Agency for International Development, the United States Department of the Treasury, and the United States Federal Reserve Bank, and was a Research Fellow at Stanford University’s Center on Democracy, Development, and the Rule of Law. He holds a PhD in Political Science from the University of California, San Diego.
Jean Michel Marchat
Jean Michel Marchat is a Lead Economist in the Trade and Competitiveness Global Practice at the World Bank. His work focuses on growth, trade, and firm data analysis. In his current capacity, he is leading key research work (investment climate reports, trade policy analytics, and country development strategies), assists World Bank teams in the design of lending operations, and provides policy advice to several countries in West Africa and the Middle East. Prior to this, he worked in the MENA and Africa regions of the World Bank on trade facilitation and export development programs, and on SME development while leading major analytical work on regional integration and the investment climate. Before joining the World Bank Group, in the early 2000s, he worked for several years in Kazakhstan as an advisor for Macroeconomics, Forecasting and Trade in the Ministry of Economy. He holds a PhD in Economics and a Master in Development Economics from CERDI, Auvergne University, France. He also attended executive education at the Harvard Kennedy School.
Audrey Verdier-Chouchane is Chief Research Economist in the Macroeconomics Policy, Forecasting and Research Department at the African Development Bank. Prior to joining the Bank in 2004, Dr Verdier-Chouchane taught Macroeconomics and Development Economics at the University of Nice, France, where she obtained a PhD in Economics and a Master in Macro-dynamics and International Finance. Apart from her previous publications on financial development and growth, her research interests include the analysis and measurement of poverty and inequalities in Africa, areas in which she has extensively published. She has coordinated and contributed to many flagship publications within the African Development Bank, such as the African Economic Outlook, the African Development Report, and The Africa Competitiveness Report in collaboration with sister institutions.